March 26, 2023 3:24 pm

In a current assessment published in the Journal of Fungi, researchers in New York, USA, assessment current information on the association amongst human mycobiota and female wellness.

Study: The Part of the Mycobiome in Women’s Well being. Image Credit: Kateryna Kon /

Bacteria and fungal infections

Preceding research have reported considerable diversity in the human mycobiome. Nonetheless, an enhanced understanding of the mycobiome would help in elucidating the pathophysiology of and immune responses to fungal infections and, as a outcome, the improvement antimycotic therapies.

Fungal and bacterial microbiota are interlinked, as demonstrated by the capability of bacteria to stop commensal Candida organisms from causing illness by inhibiting yeast-hyphal conversion and rising the integrity of the epithelium. Further analysis is required to characterize the fungal microbiome in wellness and infection, as effectively as boost illness states by restoring the microbial imbalance.

In the present assessment, researchers talk about the human female mycobiome and the influence of mycobiome dysbiosis on female wellness.

The fungal microbiome of ladies

The oral mycobiome is dominated by Candida, Cladosporium, Aureobasidium, Saccharomycetales, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cryptococcus, Pichia, and Malassezia, whereas human breast milk is dominated by Candida, Cryptococcus, and Saccharomyces.

The most abundant fungal microbes in the human gut involve Candida, Saccharomyces, Malassezia, and Cladosporium. Comparatively, Candida, 70% of which are Candida albicans, Saccharomycetales, Davidiellaceae, Cadosporium, and Pichia dominate the vaginal mycobiome.

Female skin mycobiome is abundant in Malassezia, Candida, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Cryptococcus. Amongst Candida species, C. albicans is the most abundant in ladies.

The fungal microbiome varies significantly by age, gender, physical exercising, routine activities, nutrition, infections, and drugs, specifically antibiotic and antifungal drugs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and smokeless tobacco consumption considerably lower fungal microbial diversity and richness, thereby resulting in Pichia dominance, which can lead to oral cancers.

Other aspects which includes the lowered flow of saliva, pH, and denture use are linked to elevated Candida counts. Enhanced abundance of C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata has been observed in the elderly with a low physique mass index (BMI) and is probably related with immunosuppression and enhanced susceptibility to Candida infections in older folks.

In postpartum females, improved abundance of Geotrichum, Stachybotrys, Leucosporidium, Talaromyces, Wallemia, Acremonium, Septoria, Eupenicillium, Coniosporium, Zymoseptoria, Mycosphaerella, and Phialophora has been observed. Men and women with higher educational attainment, as effectively as these consuming additional vegetables and fruits, frequently exhibit decrease C. parapsilosis counts. Malassezia is reportedly additional dominant in the skin of ladies than guys.

Significance of mycobiota dysbiosis on female wellness

Elevated counts of Exophiala and Filobasidium have been reported amongst intrauterine adhesion (IUA) sufferers, with lowered fibrosis and inflammation in vagina tissues exposed to C. parapsilosis. Vaginal mycobiome dysbiosis also destroys the bacterial microbiome of the vagina.

Ladies suffering from recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC) exhibit improved C. albicans abundance and lowered abundance of S. cerevisiae in the vagina than their healthful counterparts.

Intestinal mycobiota imbalance is associated to Crohn’s illness, bacterial imbalance, and cirrhosis. A lot more particularly, elevated Malassezia restricta, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota counts have been reported in Crohn’s illness.

In the cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis, decrease Malassezia counts and improved filamentous fungal organisms’ have been observed. Comparatively, improved Malassezia abundance is associated to pancreatic and colorectal cancer improvement. Cutaneous fungal microbes such as Candida and Malassezia create robust immune responses and sensitize the skin at lesional web-sites.

Enhanced Schizophyllum abundance added benefits the host, as the fungi possess antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Fungi like Candida albicans are essential immunological regulators and are critically involved through eubiotic mechanisms in immunological priming.

Signal cascades are triggered, wherein dendritic cells recognize fungi and induce helper T lymphocyte responses and anti-fungal immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fungal microbes also secrete metabolites like candidalysin that function as cytotoxins to market antimycotic immune responses and immunological cascades.

Mycobiome adjustments also alter bacterial microbiota, thereby influencing critical metabolites in the human physique, which includes organic acids, brief-chain fatty acids, butyrate, succinate, and taurine.  

Fungal metabolites, categorized as non-ribosomal peptide synthases, polyketide synthases, steroids, terpenoids, and fatty acid derivatives have been implicated in Alzheimer’s illness, cancers, and several metabolic problems. For instance, N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid outcomes in hypotension.

Alterations in the fungal microbiome influence the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. This can lead to the production of various secondary metabolite molecules, such as sugars, toxins, and acids.


The fungal microbiome of ladies is considerably related with the bacterial microbiome and is critically involved in illness pathophysiology, immunological responses, and all round wellness.

Journal reference:

  • Esposito, M. M., Patsakos, S., &amp Borruso, L. (2023). The Part of the Mycobiome in Women’s Well being. Journal of Fungi 9(348). doi:ten.3390/jof9030348

Written by

Pooja Toshniwal Paharia

Dr. primarily based clinical-radiological diagnosis and management of oral lesions and situations and related maxillofacial problems.


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